January 25, 2022
- Images in neonatal medicineLong bone radiographic abnormalities of congenital syphilis in a preterm infant
- ReviewManipulating the neonatal gut microbiome: current understanding and future perspectives
This review summarises current understanding regarding how modern birth influence neonatal gut microbiome development together with potential methods of microbiome engineering that might encourage the development of a microbiome that promote long term health.
- Original researchMRI-based brain volumes of preterm infants at term: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Reference data for MRI determined brain volumes at term equivalent age in preterm infants
January 21, 2022
January 20, 2022
- ReviewRespiratory function monitoring to improve the outcomes following neonatal resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Investigators conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the use of a respiratory function monitor versus clinical assessment of tidal volume delivery in neonatal resuscitation, with the primary outcome of death before discharge. 3 RCTs enrolling 443 infants were identified. No differences in death, or morbidity were identified, with a call for more research.
- Original researchAssociations of body composition with regional brain volumes and white matter microstructure in very preterm infants
This prospective observational study looks at the associations between body composition and brain development among very preterm infants at term equivalent age.
- Images in neonatal medicineCongenital myofibroma of the hand
December 24, 2021
- ReviewNeonatal and fetal therapy of congenital diaphragmatic hernia-related pulmonary hypertension
This review looks at the current clinically available neonatal and fetal therapies targeting congenital diaphragmatic hernia and the associated pulmonary hypertension, and considers the most promising experimental treatments and future research.
December 23, 2021
- Short reportImplementing two-stage consent pathway in neonatal trials
Short report from a team of UK neonatal triallists highlighting the 2 stage consent process that is being used as part of the ongoing FEED1 trial
- Images in neonatal medicineExtreme preterm neonate with fetal warfarin syndrome
December 20, 2021
- Original researchGlobal incidence proportion of intraventricular haemorrhage of prematurity: a meta-analysis of studies published 2010–2020
This meta-analysis of studies reporting rates of IVH identified 38 studies (87,993 infants) reporting any IVH and 49 studies (328,562 infants) reporting severe IVH. There was substantial variability between studies, largely explained by differences in GA of enrolled infants.
December 16, 2021
- Original researchOutcome of non-cooled asphyxiated infants with under-recognised or delayed-onset encephalopathy
In a retrospective cohort study, all infants with perinatal asphyxia and early seizure onset who did not receive therapeutic hypothermia had MRI abnormalities and half died or had poor neurodevelopmental outcome.
December 15, 2021
December 03, 2021
- Original researchEffects of tactile stimulation on spontaneous breathing during face mask ventilation
Secondary data analysis suggesting that neonates have more spontaneous breaths after birth following cutaneous stimulation.
December 02, 2021
- Original researchEffect of prophylactic dextrose gel on the neonatal gut microbiome
This observational study nested in an RCT of oral dextrose gel vs placebo to prevent hypoglycaemia in term infants, explores whether dextrose gel has an impact on the neonatal gut microbiome.
November 29, 2021
- Original researchSingle versus continuous sustained inflations during chest compressions and physiological-based cord clamping in asystolic lambs
In this study of resuscitation from asystole in newborn lambs there was no advantage to the use of continual sustained inflations as part of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) strategy. Some haemodynamic measures were improved when CPR was provided with the umbilical cord intact in comparison with CPR after cord clamping.
- Original researchPredicting neurodevelopmental outcomes in fetuses with isolated mild ventriculomegaly
Amongst 42 fetuses with isolated mild ventriculomegaly, all 23 fetuses with unilateral dilatation had normal neurodevelopmental outcome. Normal outcome was observed in 12/19 fetuses where the ventriculomegaly was bilateral.
November 25, 2021
November 24, 2021
- Original researchRandomised crossover trial comparing algorithms and averaging times for automatic oxygen control in preterm infants
In this randomised crossover study in 24 oxygen dependent preterm infants on non-invasive respiratory support, modifications to an established automated oxygen controller did not improve time in intended SpO₂ range. There was no difference in performance whether the oximeter SpO₂ averaging time was set to 2 seconds or 8 seconds.
November 23, 2021
- Original researchParental perspective on important health outcomes of extremely preterm infants
Parents of extremely preterm born children undergoing follow up rated their children's health as 9/10. Parental priorities for health improvement were related to behaviour, emotional health and language communication, respiratory health and feeding/growth issues.
November 22, 2021
- Original researchCerebral perfusion and neurological examination characterise neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome: a prospective cohort study
This prospective cohort study found that 30 infants with neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome had higher global cerebral blood flow and more neurological exam abnormalities than 31 unexposed controls. Follow-up to determine these infants’ neurodevelopmental courses is required.
November 18, 2021
- Original researchEarly versus later initiation of parenteral nutrition for very preterm infants: a propensity score-matched observational study
This large observational study of over 65,000 infants uses propensity matching to assess the impact of early (<2 days of age) and late (>2 days) commencement of parenteral nutrition in preterm infants born before 31 weeks gestation.
November 17, 2021
- Original researchImpact of maternal obesity on neonatal heart rate and cardiac size
This manuscript examines the impact of preconception maternal obesity on measures of cardiac size and function assessed by MRI. The authors compared ECG findings and cardiac MRI findings in infants delivered to normal BMI and obese women. They found a higher resting heart rate and lower LV end diastolic volume and stroke volumes in infants who were born to obese women. They speculate that these findings may be related to increased CV risk in offspring of obese mothers.
November 15, 2021
- Original researchFive-minute Apgar score and outcomes in neonates of 24–28 weeks’ gestation
In a large multicenter retrospective study of extremely preterm infants, increasing 5-minute Apgar scores were associated with decreasing mortality but low scores did not predict severe neurologic injury in survivors.
November 09, 2021
- Original researchDual-site blood culture yield and time to positivity in neonatal late-onset sepsis
Observational, single-centre study questioning the need to obtain both, peripheral and catheter-based, blood cultures in infants with suspected sepsis - the answer is yes, we need both if we do not want to miss a positive result in a significant proportion of infants.
November 01, 2021
- Original researchNeurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants after randomisation to initial resuscitation with lower (FiO2 <0.3) or higher (FiO2 >0.6) initial oxygen levels. An individual patient meta-analysis
In an individual patient meta-analysis of infants less than 32 weeks gestation, resuscitation with lower (<0.3) or higher (>0.6) initial FiO2 was not associated with risk of death or disability at 2 years.
- Original researchOutcome of infants with 10 min Apgar scores of 0–1 in a low-resource setting
This observational study of 49 newborns, Apgar score of 0-1 after 10 mins’ resuscitation was conducted in Uganda. Resuscitation continued for median (IQR) of 32 (17-37) min, 1 infant survived to 7 days. Policies around discontinuing resuscitation should vary according to setting.
October 25, 2021
- Original researchReduced health-related quality of life in children born extremely preterm in 2006 compared with 1995: the EPICure Studies
Parent-reported health-related quality of life information was obtained for children born <26 weeks gestation in England at 11 years in two birth cohorts (1995 and 2006). Mean utility scores were significantly lower for 2006 vs. 1995 cohorts, while control groups were similar.
October 22, 2021
- Original researchTemporal trends in routine predischarge pulse oximetry screening: 6 years’ experience in a UK regional neonatal unit
This large retrospective review of over 49,000 infants examines the impact of routine pulse oximetry screening in a regional neonatal unit. Improvements in detection rates of congenital heart disease were seen, together with a reduction in the admission of healthy babies.
- Original researchSurfactant therapy in late preterm and term neonates with respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Uncertainty exists on surfactant in late preterm and term infants with RDS. Surfactant therapy in neonates ≥340/7 weeks may be associated with decreased risk of mortality and short-term respiratory morbidities. However, there is wide variation in thresholds for surfactant therapy.
October 19, 2021
October 16, 2021
- Original researchSocial inequalities in access to care at birth and neonatal mortality: an observational study
This manuscript examines all live births in France from 2012 - 2014 to assess the association between socioeconomic status and delivery of preterm infants in the appropriate level of maternity and neonatal care. The authors found such an association, as well as a higher risk of neonatal mortality.
October 07, 2021
- Original researchNeonatal-onset mitochondrial disease: clinical features, molecular diagnosis and prognosis
The authors analyzed neonatal-onset mitochondrial disease in Japan via a retrospective observational study to clarify its clinical features, molecular diagnosis, and prognosis. The heterogeneous aetiology if the group is outlined.
October 04, 2021
- Original researchPrenatal ultrasonographic markers for prediction of complex gastroschisis and adverse perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Based on a systematic review, it was concluded that observed bowel dilatation in the second trimester of pregnancy was significantly associated with the development of complex gastroschisis, postnatal short bowel syndrome and length of stay.
September 29, 2021
- Original researchComparison of intraosseous and intravenous epinephrine administration during resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn lambs
When intravenous access is not easily attainable, recommendations are to use intra-osseus as an alternative route for adrenaline administration in neonatal resuscitation. In an non-randomized trial in a lamb model, these two delivery routes were equivalent in terms of success in resuscitation and serum adrenaline levels.
- Original researchAntenatal corticosteroids and neurodevelopmental outcomes in late preterm births
In a large population-based dataset of live births at 34-36 weeks' gestation born 2006-2011, exposure to antenatal corticosteroids earlier in gestation may be associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental concerns and healthcare utilization at 5-9 years.
September 23, 2021
September 22, 2021
- Original researchImplementation of an adapted Sepsis Risk Calculator algorithm to reduce antibiotic usage in the management of early onset neonatal sepsis: a multicentre initiative in Wales, UK
Antibiotic use in the newborn may have long lasting impact. Neonatal sepsis is relatively rare but one which causes concern, investigation and treatment. This paper describes the implementation of an sepsis risk calculator to reduce antibiotic use in a safe and sustainable way.