August 04, 2021
August 03, 2021
- Original researchMonitoring of carbon dioxide in ventilated neonates: a prospective observational study
This study comparing the precision and accuracy of end-tidal and transcutaneous pCO2 with arterial measurements found that end-tidal CO2, measured through a double-lumen ET tube in ventilated neonates, was superior to tcpCO2.
August 02, 2021
- Original researchComparison of three intraosseous access devices for resuscitation of term neonates: a randomised simulation study
Three different devices for intra-osseous access during were evaluated in a bone model intended to simulate insertion in term newborns. A total of 92 paediatricians were involved. Success rates were markedly different between devices.
July 30, 2021
- Original researchOutcomes of very preterm infants with neonatal hyperglycaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
In a systematic review and meta-analysis, hyperglycemia in very preterm infants is associated with higher odds of mortality, IVH, and ROP.
- Original researchAssessment of optimal chest compression depth during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomised controlled animal trial
In an asphyxiated piglet model, time to return of spontaneous circulation was similar for chest compressions 25%, 33%, and 40% anterior-posterior depth, while Increasing compression depth improved hemodynamic and respiratory parameters.
July 29, 2021
July 28, 2021
- Original researchTemporal trends in respiratory care and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very preterm infants over a 10-year period in Spain
National survey of changes in respiratory outcomes of VLBW infants over 2 periods, showing that outcome did not improve despite an increase in the use of non-invasive ventilation.
- Original researchOesophageal atresia: sonographic signs may prenatally predict surgical complexity
This manuscript characterizes prenatal ultrasound findings of babies with esophageal atresia with the presence or absence of a distal fistula. The authors found several ultrasound parameters were correlated with more complex repair and absence of a distal fistula
- Original researchDirect swallowing training and oral sensorimotor stimulation in preterm infants: a randomised controlled trial
This single centre, masked RCT enrolling 186 infants <32 weeks gestation found that direct swallowing training combined with oral sensorimotor stimulation significantly shortened the time to independent oral feeding compared with no intervention.
July 19, 2021
- Original researchTemporal trends of in utero and early postnatal transfer of extremely preterm infants between 2011 and 2016: a UK population study
Between 2011 and 2016, the rate of intra-uterine transfer of extremely preterm infants within the UK decreased, with an associated increase in early postnatal transfer. This also includes early postnatal transfer between level 3 NICUs.
July 14, 2021
- Original researchHead circumference, total cerebral volume and neurodevelopment in preterm neonates
This paper looks at the relationship between head growth during neonatal unit stay and neurodevelopmental outcomes in a prospective cohort.
- Images in neonatal medicineDiagnosis of hydrocephalus by cranial transillumination
July 13, 2021
- Original researchGrowth in extremely preterm children born in England in 1995 and 2006: the EPICure studies
This paper describes the growth to age 11 of a sample of the EPICure 2 2006 preterm birth cohort, compared to healthy same age controls and to the 1995 EPICure cohort. Since 1995, childhood growth in weight, height and BMI have improved for births <26 weeks of gestation, but there was no improvement in head growth.
- Original researchTitres and neutralising capacity of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in human milk: a systematic review
Systematic review on the titers and neutralising capacity of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in human milk demonstrates that these antibodies can neutralise the virus in vitro. Furthermore, high pressure, but not Holder pasteurisation deactivates the specific IgAs.
- Original researchCharacteristics of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections in Germany: results of a 2-year prospective nationwide surveillance study
This two-year prospective nationwide surveillance study of neonatal HSV infections finds few cases in Germany. Most children had few symptoms and good outcomes, but five infants had significant sequelae. Orofacial HSV infection was present in one or more family members for 20/23 babies where data was available, but it is not clear if this was the mode of transmission.
July 07, 2021
- Original researchComparison of volume guarantee and volume-controlled ventilation both using closed loop inspired oxygen in preterm infants: a randomised crossover study (CLIO-VG study)
Cross-over study addressing whether improved time within oxygen saturation target can be primarily improved by volume-controlled ventilation or automatic control of the FiO2, with the results clearly showing that the latter is more important for reaching this goal
- Short reportAntenatal magnesium sulfate to prevent cerebral palsy
Embedding a quality improvement program on prenatal magnesium administration is feasible to reduce the impact of cerebral palsy.
June 29, 2021
- Images in neonatal medicineUmbilical cord thrombosis and chorioamnionitis in neonatal arterial ischaemic stroke
- Original researchInterface leakage during neonatal CPAP treatment: a randomised, cross-over trial
Crossover study comparing interface leaks occurring with masks vs. prongs in 50 preterm infants and showing significantly lower leak with prongs. With either device, leak could be reduced by simple maneuvers, e.g., adjusting the angle, straps, bonnet or shape of the interface.
- Images in neonatal medicinePerinatal onset of severe congenital erythropoietic porphyria
June 28, 2021
- Original researchLife-threatening bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a British Paediatric Surveillance Unit Study
The authors describe a prospective cohort of 153 babies with "life threatening BPD" defined as requiring positive pressure at 38 weeks corrected gestational age. Data were collected from the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit from June 2017 to July 2018. Findings include a high likelihood of serious morbidity and mortality, and large practice variation in therapies.
June 25, 2021
June 23, 2021
- Original researchExtubation generates lung volume inhomogeneity in preterm infants
Observational study using Electrical Impedance Tomography to confirm that lung volume is lost during transition from IPPV to CPAP.
- Original researchParent-reported health status of preterm survivors in a Canadian cohort
Among infants <29 weeks' gestation in the Canadian Neonatal Follow Up Network with parent-reported health status impact at 36 months, most reported none or mild concerns, and only ~ 1 in 4 reported moderate or severe concerns. Concerns were associated with a range of factors.
June 18, 2021
- Original researchFamily integrated care: very preterm neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months
In a subset of infants who participated in a cluster RCT of Family Integrated Care (FICare), FICare was not associated with a significant reduction in Bayley-III Cognitive or Language composite scores <85 at 18-21 months, but there was evidence of better motor development.
June 15, 2021
June 10, 2021
- Original researchRespiratory support after delayed cord clamping: a prospective cohort study of at-risk births at ≥35+0 weeks gestation
This manuscript reports risk factors for the need for respiratory support in a prospective cohort of babies delivered at > 35 weeks who had DCC in pediatrician attended births. A heart rate < 165 90 - 120 sec after birth was associated with the need for respiratory support.
- Original researchComparison of two devices for automated oxygen control in preterm infants: a randomised crossover trial
In this crossover study comparing two commercially available devices for automated adjustment of inspired oxygen there were significant differences between devices in the proportion of time infants spent in their intended target SpO2 range and in their exposure to high and low SpO2.
- Original researchTrial of aerosolised surfactant for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome
This is a report of a pilot trial of a new device to aerosolize surfactant delivery to preterm infants with respiratory distress requiring CPAP using comparison to historical controls. No safety issues were identified, and there was a trend toward improvement in treated infants.
- Original researchPrediction of outcome from MRI and general movements assessment after hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in low-income and middle-income countries: data from a randomised controlled trial
In a secondary analyses of a RCT of hypothermia for HIE in India, neonatal MRI and general movements assessment (GMA) were evaluated in prediction of adverse 2-year neurodevelopmental outcomes. GMA may be a feasible low-cost alternative or complementary approach to MRI in low-resource settings.
- Original researchNeurodevelopmental outcome of patients with congenital gastrointestinal malformations: a systematic review and meta-analysis
This systemic review and meta-analysis examines neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants with a wide variety of congenital gastrointestinal malformations. The authors report that these lesions are associated with poorer outcomes, and recommend routine follow-up.
June 09, 2021
- Original researchEffect of breathing on venous return during delayed cord clamping: an observational study
Real-time echocardiographic monitoring of blood flow in the ductus venosus and hepatic vein was undertaken during perinatal transition with intact umbilical cord of term born infants. Antegrade flow increased during inspiration, preferentially directing blood flow from the ductus venosus into the right atrium.
- Original researchAqueous chlorhexidine 1% versus 2% for neonatal skin antisepsis: a randomised non-inferiority trial
This controlled trial tested different strengths of aqueous chlorhexidine for neonatal skin antisepsis prior to intravenous cannulation in a neonatal intensive care unit in India, finding that 1% chlorhexidine was effective, but not clearly equivalent to 2% which pending further research remains the recommended concentration for this purpose.
June 03, 2021
May 27, 2021
- Images in neonatal medicineCongenital cutaneous candidiasis in one infant among a twin sibling pair
- Original researchOutcomes of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in centres with and without active therapeutic hypothermia: a nationwide propensity score-matched analysis
UK study using national data investigate the effect of birth in or outside a recognised cooling centre on short term outcomes of babies >36 weeks with moderate to severe HIE. Birth in a cooling centre, is associated with improved survival to discharge without seizures, fewer seizures, and similar mortality.
- Original researchNeurodevelopmental outcome following hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia is related to right ventricular performance at 24-hour postnatal age
This manuscript details measures of right ventricular dysfunction as a predictor of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in babies with HIE. One measure of RV dysfunction (tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion) was independently associated with adverse outcomes.
May 26, 2021
- Original researchStrict glycaemic control in very low birthweight infants using a continuous glucose monitoring system: a randomised controlled trial
This is a randomized controlled trial investigating whether using a continuous glucose monitoring system improves glycaemic control in very low birth weight infants.
May 21, 2021
- Original researchNeuronal exosome proteins: novel biomarkers for predicting neonatal response to therapeutic hypothermia
In an observational cohort study, exosome based central nervous system biomarkers from peripheral blood in newborns less than 12 hours old undergoing hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy differentiated those with favorable and unfavorable MRI injury scores at 5-7 days.
May 20, 2021
- Original researchSystematic review of high-flow nasal cannula versus continuous positive airway pressure for primary support in preterm infants
Systematic review on studies comparing high-flow nasal cannula with N-CPAP support for preterm infants, reporting a higher risk of treatment failure for the former, but because the authors found no difference in intubation rates and a lower rate of nasal trauma, they conclude that HFNC may still be preferable.
May 14, 2021
- Original researchEarly lung ultrasound affords little to the prediction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia
These investigators report a prospective analysis of preterm babies < 28 weeks gestation in whom lung ultrasounds were performed on a scheduled basis. They found that u/s was predictive in univariate analysis of the development of BPD, but added little to the predictive value when gestational age was included in the model.
- Original researchNeonatal arterial stroke location is associated with outcome at 2 years: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study
In a prospective observational multicenter study of neonatal stroke, lesion location identified by MRI is associated with language, motor, and cognitive outcomes at two years of age.
- Short reportNasal expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors in newborns
Low nasal expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors in newborns in both preterm and term cases may contribute to the low attack rates and mild disease in newborns.
May 10, 2021
- Original researchPredictive Intelligent Control of Oxygenation (PRICO) in preterm infants on high flow nasal cannula support: a randomised cross-over study
Randomised cross-over study of an oxygen controller during high-flow nasal cannula support. The controller reduced time spent in hypoxia considerably, yet not that in hyperoxia.