In the modern era of neonatology, mechanical ventilation has been restricted to a smaller and more immature population of extremely preterm infants. Given the adverse outcomes associated with mechanical ventilation, every effort is made to extubate these infants as early as possible. However, the scientific basis for determining extubation readiness remains imprecise and primarily guided by clinical judgement, which is highly variable and subjective. In the absence of accurate tools to assess extubation readiness, many infants fail their extubation attempt and require reintubation, which also increases complications. Recent advances in the field have led to unravelling some of the complexities surrounding extubation in this population. This review aims to synthesise the available knowledge and provide a more evidence-based approach towards the reporting of extubation outcomes and assessment of extubation readiness in extremely preterm infants.
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