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Transthoracic colour-encoded M-mode echocardiography demonstrating neonatal atrial flutter
  1. Karen Donceras Nadua1,
  2. Ming Xu2,
  3. Jonathan Tze Liang Choo2
  1. 1Department of Paediatrics, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore
  2. 2Department of Paediatric Subspecialities, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jonathan Tze Liang Choo, Department of Paediatric Subspecialities, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore; chooseml{at}yahoo.com.sg

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The heart rate of a premature infant had acutely increased during umbilical venous catheterisation. Surface ECG showed a heart rate of 220 beats per minute (bpm). This was interpreted as sinus tachycardia. Transthoracic echocardiography was subsequently performed, demonstrating a moderate patent ductus arteriosus and a small patent oval foramen (PFO), both with left-to-right flow across. In addition, colour-encoded M-mode was used with the line of interrogation crossing the PFO, demonstrating two mechanical atrial events for each ventricular mechanical event …

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Footnotes

  • Contributors KDN wrote the manuscript. MX critically reviewed the manuscript. JTLC wrote the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Parental/guardian consent obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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