Objective To identify potential risk factors for unexpected sudden infant deaths (SID) and severe apparent life-threatening events (S-ALTE) within 24 h of birth.
Design Case-control study embedded in an epidemiological survey over a 2-year period.
Patients and methods Throughout 2009, every paediatric department in Germany was asked to report cases of unexplained SID or S-ALTE in term infants with a 10-min Apgar score ≥8 to the Surveillance Unit for Rare Pediatric Conditions. Throughout 2010, the inclusion criteria were extended to infants ≥35 week gestational age and those where an explanation for the deterioration had been found. For each unexplained case, hospitals were asked to fill in a questionnaire for 3 (near-)term controls with good postnatal adaptation at the age (in minutes) when the event had occurred in the case under study.
Results Of the 85 cases reported, 34 fulfilled the entry criteria; of these, two were near-term newborns and, in three cases, a cause had been identified for the event. For the 31 cases with unknown cause for the event (13 males; mean (SD) gestational age 38.9 (1.7) week), the authors gathered 93 controls (51 male infants; 38.9 (1.4) week). As significant risk factors for S-ALTE and SID, the authors could identify primipara (OR 6.22; 95% CI 2.11 to 18.32) and potentially asphyxiating position (OR 6.45; 95% CI 1.22 to 34.10).
Conclusions Close observation of newborns seems necessary, particularly in primipara; a potentially asphyxiating position should be avoided.
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