Like many treatments available to small or ill neonates, erythrocyte transfusions carry both benefits and risks. This review examines recent publications aimed at better defining those benefits and those risks, as means of advancing evidence-based neonatal intensive care unit transfusion practices. Since decisions regarding whether to not to order an erythrocyte transfusion are based, in part, on the neonate's blood haemoglobin concentration, the authors also review recent studies aimed at preventing the haemoglobin from falling to a point where a transfusion is considered.
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Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.