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Preterm mortality and morbidity over 25 years
  1. R W I Cooke
  1. Correspondence to:
    Professor Cooke
    School of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, University of Liverpool, Neonatal Unit, Liverpool Women’s Hospital, Liverpool L8 7SS, UK; mc19{at}


Changing preterm population variables have masked improvements in neonatal survival over time. Increased use of antenatal steroids, caesarean section, and surfactant may have reduced the likelihood of mortality and periventricular haemorrhage by a third and doubled that of chronic lung disease, persistent duct, and septicaemia.

  • CLD, chronic lung disease
  • PDA, persistent arterial duct
  • PVH, periventricular haemorrhage
  • preterm
  • outcome
  • mortality
  • morbidity
  • antenatal steroids
  • surfactant

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  • Competing interests: none declared