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Long term outcome of twin-twin transfusion syndrome
  1. R B Cincottaa,
  2. P H Grayb,c,
  3. G Phythianb,
  4. Y M Rogersc,
  5. F Y Chana
  1. aDepartment of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Mater Mother's Hospital, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, bDepartment of Neonatology, cGrowth and Development Unit, Mater Children's Hospital, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  1. Dr Cincotta, Department of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101, Australia1neoap{at}


AIMS To compare the perinatal mortality and morbidity of infants with twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) with those of gestation matched twin controls and to assess the neurodevelopmental outcome of surviving twins with TTTS.

METHODS A cohort of 17 consecutive pregnancies with TTTS was enrolled over three years together with gestation matched twin pregnancies unaffected by TTTS. Serial amnioreduction for the TTTS pregnancies was performed as appropriate. Perinatal death and neonatal morbidities were recorded for both the TTTS cohort and controls. The TTTS survivors had neurodevelopmental follow up to at least 2 years of age.

RESULTS In 12 of the pregnancies, serial amniocenteses were performed, but, in five, the infants were born before intervention. The mean gestational age at delivery was 29.1 weeks (range 23–36). There were five intrauterine deaths in the TTTS cohort and six neonatal deaths (survival 68%). In the control group, there was one intrauterine death and five neonatal deaths (survival 82%). Infants in the TTTS group had a greater requirement for inotropes (p = 0.04) and a higher incidence of renal failure (p = 0.005). Periventricular leucomalacia and cerebral atrophy were seen in 17% of the TTTS group, but none of the controls (p = 0.03). The 23 surviving TTTS infants were all followed up, with 22% having significant neurological morbidity: cerebral palsy and global developmental delay.

CONCLUSIONS Twins with TTTS have high perinatal mortality and neonatal morbidity, and long term neurodevelopmental morbidity in survivors is high. Further investigation into the pathogenesis and management of TTTS is required.

  • twin-twin transfusion syndrome
  • amnioreduction
  • morbidity
  • neurodevelopmental outcome

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