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Randomised clinical trial of two treatment regimens of natural surfactant preparations in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.
  1. C. P. Speer,
  2. O. Gefeller,
  3. P. Groneck,
  4. E. Laufkötter,
  5. C. Roll,
  6. L. Hanssler,
  7. K. Harms,
  8. E. Herting,
  9. H. Boenisch,
  10. J. Windeler
  1. Department of Paediatrics, University of Göttingen, Germany.


    AIMS--To compare treatment regimens of two widely used natural surfactant preparations Curosurf and Survanta in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). METHODS--The effects of the two treatment regimens on gas exchange, ventilatory requirements, and 28 day outcome in infants with RDS were compared. Seventy five preterm infants (birth weight 700-1500 g) with RDS requiring artificial ventilation with an FIO2 of > or = 0.4, were randomly selected at 1-24 hours of age. One group received an initial dose of Curosurf (200 mg/kg); the other group Survanta (100 mg/kg). Patients who remained dependent on artificial ventilation with an FIO2 of > or = 0.3 received up to two additional doses of Curosurf (each of 100 mg/kg) after 12 and 24 hours or up to three additional doses of Survanta (each of 100 mg/kg) between six and 48 hours after the initial dose. RESULTS--There was a rapid improvement in oxygenation and ventilatory requirements were reduced in both groups. However, infants treated with Curosurf had a higher arterial:alveolar oxygen tension ratio and required a lower peak inspiratory pressure and mean airway pressure at several time points within 24 hours of randomisation (p < 0.05-0.001). The incidences of pneumothorax in the Curosurf and Survanta groups were 6% and 12.5%, respectively; the corresponding figures for grades 3-4 intracerebral haemorrhage were 3% and 12.5%, respectively. Mortality was 3% in the Curosurf group and 12.5% in the Survanta group. However, these differences did not reach significance. CONCLUSION--The Curosurf treatment regimen resulted in a more rapid improvement in oxygenation than Survanta and reduced ventilatory requirements up to 24 hours after start of treatment. This was associated with a trend towards reduced incidence of serious pulmonary and non-pulmonary complications.

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