Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Neurodevelopment and healthcare utilisation at age 5–6 years in bronchopulmonary dysplasia: an EPIPAGE-2 cohort study


Objective We aimed to study neurodevelopmental outcomes and healthcare utilisation at age 5–6 years in very preterm children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

Design Prospective and national population-based study.

Setting All the neonatal units in 25 French regions (21 of the 22 metropolitan regions and 4 overseas regions).

Patients Children born before 32 weeks’ gestation in 2011.

Interventions Blind, comprehensive and standardised assessment by trained neuropsychologists and paediatricians at age 5–6 years.

Main outcome measures Overall neurodevelopmental disabilities, behavioural difficulties, developmental coordination disorders, full-scale IQ, cerebral palsy, social interaction disorders, rehospitalisation in the previous 12 months and detailed developmental support.

Results Of the 3186 children included, 413 (11.7%) had BPD. The median gestational age of children with BPD was 27 weeks (IQR 26.0–28.0) and without BPD was 30 weeks (28.0–31.0). At age 5–6 years, 3150 children were alive; 1914 (60.8%) had a complete assessment. BPD was strongly associated with mild, moderate and severe overall neurodevelopmental disabilities (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.20; 2.20, 1.41 to 3.42 and 2.71, 1.67 to 4.40). BPD was associated with developmental coordination disorders, behavioural difficulties, lower IQ score as well as rehospitalisation in the last 12 months and developmental support. The association between BPD and cerebral palsy was statistically significant before adjustment but not in adjusted analyses.

Conclusions BPD was strongly and independently associated with many neurodevelopmental disabilities. Improving medical and neurodevelopmental management of BPD in very preterm children should be a priority to reduce its long-term consequences.

  • neonatology
  • child development
  • epidemiology

Data availability statement

Data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available. The study protocol, the data access charter and the data access procedure can be found on the EPIPAGE-2 website ( Questionnaires and data catalogues are available on (

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.