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Chest compressions in newborn infants: a scoping review


Aim The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Neonatal Life Support Task Force undertook a scoping review of the literature to identify evidence relating to neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Methods MEDLINE complete, EMBASE and Cochrane database of Systematic reviews were searched from inception to November 2021. Two authors screened titles and abstracts and full text reviewed. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were peer-reviewed and assessed one of five aspects of chest compression in the newborn infant including: (1) heart rate thresholds to start chest compressions (CC), (2) compression to ventilation ratio (C:V ratio), (3) CC technique, (4) oxygen use during CC and 5) feedback devices to optimise CC.

Results Seventy-four studies were included (n=46 simulation, n=24 animal and n=4 clinical studies); 22/74 were related to compression to ventilation ratios, 29/74 examined optimal technique to perform CC, 7/74 examined oxygen delivery and 15/74 described feedback devices during neonatal CC.

Conclusion There were very few clinical studies and mostly manikin and animal studies. The findings either reinforced or were insufficient to change previous recommendations which included to start CC if heart rate remains <60/min despite adequate ventilation, using a 3:1 C:V ratio, the two-thumb encircling technique and 100% oxygen during CC.

  • Neonatology
  • Cardiology
  • Intensive Care Units, Neonatal
  • Resuscitation

Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.

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