March 2023 - Volume 108 - 2
Highlights from this issue
- Caffeine to prevent intermittent hypoxaemia in late preterm infants: randomised controlled dosage trial (29 August, 2022)
In late preterms (132 infants, 34-36 weeks), a randomized controlled trial (placebo, versus different caffeine citrate doses), caffeine reduces intermittent hypoxia events at 2 weeks of age, with 20 mg.kg-1.day-1 being the most effective dose.
- Early-onset neonatal sepsis in the Paris area: a population-based surveillance study from 2019 to 2021 (28 July, 2022)
This population surveillance study of infants ≥34 weeks' gestation reports the incidence of early-onset sepsis, causative organisms and antibiotic susceptibilities. Details of maternal Group B Streptococcus screening status and prophylactic treatment are provided.
- Outcome at 4.5 years after dextrose gel treatment of hypoglycaemia: follow-up of the Sugar Babies randomised trial (8 August, 2022)
This follow-up study reports the neurodevelopmental status of infants randomised to either 40% dextrose or placebo gel for the treatment of neonatal hypoglycemia. There was no important difference in the rate of neurodevelopmental impairment at age 4.5 years.
- Low dose paracetamol for management of patent ductus arteriosus in very preterm infants: a randomised non-inferiority trial (8 August, 2022)
Low dose (10 mg/kg, for 3 days) intravenous paracetamol was non-inferior to a conventional high dose (15 mg/kg, for 5 days) regimen for early targeted PDA treatment in very preterm neonates, without difference in adverse effects.
- Automatic oxygen control for reducing extremes of oxygen saturation: a randomised controlled trial (23 August, 2022)
In this randomised controlled trial that included 44 infants, servo controlled adjustment of FiO2 improved oxygen targeting over the duration of ventilation and nasal CPAP treatment.
- Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and neurobehavioural outcomes at birth and 2 years in infants born before 30 weeks (23 August, 2022)
In a prospective, multicenter study of infants < 30 weeks GA, BPD severity was associated with neurobehavioral outcomes at the time of hospital discharge as measured by NNNS, and with 2 year outcomes.
- Growth trajectory during the first 1000 days and later overweight in very preterm infants (25 August, 2022)
Former very preterm born children that are overweight, underweight or normal at 5 or 15 years already had significant different BMI Z-scores by 2 years of age. Change in length Z-score during NICU stay might have a protective effect against later overweight or obesity.
- Laryngeal mask airway versus face mask ventilation or intubation for neonatal resuscitation in low-and-middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis (5 September, 2022)
Systematic review of studies comparing laryngeal mask airway (FMA) with face mask for respiratory stabilisation immediately after birth showing that failure rates with LMA are much lower than with face masks (RR: 0.24).
- Sociodemographic risk factors, parental stress and social support in the neonatal intensive care unit (6 September, 2022)
This research emphasises the importance of the role of social support in modifying the effects of parent experiences of stress in the NICU at the time of discharge. The study shows that socio-demographic risk factors may not infer stress or risk in the anticipated direction: here, higher education and socio-economic status were associated with greater parental stress. Additionally, lower socioeconomic status, though associated with decreased social support, did not infer greater stress.
- Lung volume changes during apnoeas in preterm infants (29 August, 2022)
Well-done study comparing end-expiratory lung volumes during apneas using EIT during nasal support via nCPAP vs. nHFOV in 30 infants. They found that lung volume decreased less during apnea while on nHFOV than during CPAP, and SpO2 was more stable.
- Immunoreactive trypsinogen in healthy newborns and infants with cystic fibrosis (8 September, 2022)
Newborn screening programmes for cystic fibrosis (CF) are based on levels of immuno-reactive trypsinogen (IRT). This study highlights the importance of gestational age and day of sampling in interpreting these results and emphasises the importance of a second IRT for inconclusive diagnoses.
- Management of pneumothorax in neonatal retrieval: a retrospective cohort study (27 September, 2022)
In a small retrospective cohort study of infants with pneumothorax, incidence of deterioration and need for an intercostal catheter was low during transport without an intercostal catheter.
- Use of ventilation/perfusion mismatch to guide individualised CPAP level selection in preterm infants: a feasibility trial (14 September, 2022)
Study showing that by determining the extent of V’/Q’ mismatch during CPAP treatment non-invasively, an ideal individual CPAP level can be determined, which in their sample was at 7 (5-8) cm H2O.
- Views of parents, adults born preterm and professionals on linkage of real-world data of preterm babies (19 October, 2022)
In a mixed methods approach involving focus groups, interviews, and a national survey, this study found that parents, adults born preterm, and professionals are supportive of routine linkage of health and education data for research focused on improving outcomes.
- Haemodynamic changes with varying chest compression rates in asphyxiated piglets (8 February, 2022)
In this paper, the authors found that incremental increases in the rate of chest compressions up to 180/min improved cardiac output in asphyxiated piglets receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation with sustained inflations.