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Haemodynamic changes with varying chest compression rates in asphyxiated piglets
  1. Marlies Bruckner1,2,
  2. Mattias Neset2,3,
  3. Megan O'Reilly2,4,
  4. Tze-Fun Lee2,
  5. Po-Yin Cheung2,4,
  6. Georg M Schmölzer2,4
  1. 1 Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
  2. 2 Faculty of Engineering, Centre of the Studies of Asphyxia and Resuscitation, Neonatal Research Unit, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  3. 3 University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  4. 4 Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Georg M Schmölzer, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, AB T5H 3V9, Canada; georg.schmoelzer{at}


Background Current neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend that chest compressions (CCs) be delivered at a rate of 90/min. The aim of the study was to investigate the haemodynamic effects of different CC rates in a neonatal piglet model.

Methods Six asphyxiated piglets were randomised to CC with rates of 60/min, 90/min, 120/min, 150/min and 180/min for 1 min at each rate. CCs superimposed with sustained inflations were performed with an automated CC machine.

Results Six newborn piglets (age 0–3 days, weight 2.0–2.3 kg) were included in the study. Overall, there was a gradual increase in stroke volume, minimum and maximum rate of left ventricle pressure change (dp/dtmin and dp/dtmax), and carotid blood flow until CC rate of 150/min, with a level-off effect at a CC rate of 180/min. However, cardiac output continued to increase with the highest being at a CC rate of 180/min.

Conclusion Rate of CC was associated with changes in haemodynamic parameters during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. CC rate of 150–180/min during CC resulted in the highest cardiac output and arterial blood pressure.

Trial registration number PCTE0000249.

  • resuscitation
  • neonatology

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  • Contributors Conception and design—GMS, P-YC, MO'R and T-FL. Collection and assembly of data—GMS, MO'R, T-FL, MN, MB and SdM. Analysis and interpretation of the data—GMS, MO'R, T-FL, MN, MB and SdM. Drafting of the article—GMS and SdM. Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content—GMS, P-YC, MO'R, T-FL, MN, MB and SdM. Final approval of the article— GMS, P-YC, MO'R, T-FL, MN, MB and SdM.

  • Funding The project was supported by a project grant from the Laerdal Foundation. GMS is a recipient of the Heart and Stroke Foundation/University of Alberta Professorship of Neonatal Resuscitation, a National New Investigator of the Heart and Stroke Foundation Canada and an Alberta New Investigator of the Heart and Stroke Foundation Alberta.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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