Table of contents

September 2022 - Volume 107 - 5

Highlights from this issue

  • Fantoms (18 August, 2022) Free
    Ben J Stenson

Review

  • Neonatal and fetal therapy of congenital diaphragmatic hernia-related pulmonary hypertension (24 December, 2021)
    Felix R De Bie, Catherine M Avitabile, Luc Joyeux, Holly L Hedrick, Francesca M Russo, David Basurto, Jan Deprest, Natalie E Rintoul

    This review looks at the current clinically available neonatal and fetal therapies targeting congenital diaphragmatic hernia and the associated pulmonary hypertension, and considers the most promising experimental treatments and future research.

Original research

  • Two-year neurodevelopmental outcome in children born extremely preterm: the EPI-DAF studyEditor's Choice (2 March, 2022)
    Pauline E van Beek, Monique Rijken, Lisa Broeders, Hendrik J ter Horst, Corine Koopman-Esseboom, Ellen de Kort, Céleste Laarman, Susanne M Mulder-de Tollenaer, Katerina Steiner, Renate MC Swarte, Elke van Westering-Kroon, S Guid Oei, Aleid G Leemhuis, Peter Andriessen

    In a Dutch national cohort of infants born 24+0 to 26+6/7 weeks gestation born after changes to guidelines supporting active treatment at 24+0 weeks, the majority did not have neurodevelopmental impairment at 2-year follow up as defined in this study.

  • Dual-site blood culture yield and time to positivity in neonatal late-onset sepsis (9 November, 2021)
    Sarah A Coggins, Mary Catherine Harris, Lakshmi Srinivasan

    Observational, single-centre study questioning the need to obtain both, peripheral and catheter-based, blood cultures in infants with suspected sepsis - the answer is yes, we need both if we do not want to miss a positive result in a significant proportion of infants.

  • Impact of maternal obesity on neonatal heart rate and cardiac size (17 November, 2021)
    Alan M Groves, Anthony N Price, Tamarind Russell-Webster, Simone Jhaveri, Yang Yang, Ellie E Battersby, Shiffa Shahid, Matais Costa Vieira, Emer Hughes, Faith Miller, Annette L Briley, Claire Singh, Paul T Seed, Phillip J Chowienczyk, Kenan W D Stern, Jennifer Cohen, Dharmintra Pasupathy, A David Edwards, Lucilla Poston, Paul D Taylor

    This manuscript examines the impact of preconception maternal obesity on measures of cardiac size and function assessed by MRI. The authors compared ECG findings and cardiac MRI findings in infants delivered to normal BMI and obese women. They found a higher resting heart rate and lower LV end diastolic volume and stroke volumes in infants who were born to obese women. They speculate that these findings may be related to increased CV risk in offspring of obese mothers.

  • Single versus continuous sustained inflations during chest compressions and physiological-based cord clamping in asystolic lambs (29 November, 2021)
    Georg M Schmölzer, Calum T Roberts, Douglas A Blank, Shiraz Badurdeen, Suzanne L Miller, Kelly J Crossley, Vanesa Stojanovska, Robert Galinsky, Martin Kluckow, Andrew W Gill, Stuart B Hooper, Graeme R Polglase

    In this study of resuscitation from asystole in newborn lambs there was no advantage to the use of continual sustained inflations as part of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) strategy. Some haemodynamic measures were improved when CPR was provided with the umbilical cord intact in comparison with CPR after cord clamping.

  • Parental perspective on important health outcomes of extremely preterm infants (23 November, 2021)
    Magdalena Jaworski, Annie Janvier, Claude Julie Bourque, Thuy-An Mai-Vo, Rebecca Pearce, Anne R Synnes, Thuy Mai Luu

    Parents of extremely preterm born children undergoing follow up rated their children's health as 9/10. Parental priorities for health improvement were related to behaviour, emotional health and language communication, respiratory health and feeding/growth issues.

  • Effect of prophylactic dextrose gel on the neonatal gut microbiome (2 December, 2021)
    Sophie L St Clair, Jane E Harding, Justin M O’Sullivan, Gregory D Gamble, Jane M Alsweiler, Tommi Vatanen

    This observational study nested in an RCT of oral dextrose gel vs placebo to prevent hypoglycaemia in term infants, explores whether dextrose gel has an impact on the neonatal gut microbiome.

  • Effects of tactile stimulation on spontaneous breathing during face mask ventilation (3 December, 2021)
    Vincent D Gaertner, Christoph Martin Rüegger, Dirk Bassler, Eoin O'Currain, C Omar Farouk Kamlin, Stuart B Hooper, Peter G Davis, Laila Springer

    Secondary data analysis suggesting that neonates have more spontaneous breaths after birth following cutaneous stimulation.

  • Global incidence proportion of intraventricular haemorrhage of prematurity: a meta-analysis of studies published 2010–2020 (20 December, 2021)
    Grace Y Lai, Nathan Shlobin, Roxanna M Garcia, Annie Wescott, Abhaya V Kulkarni, James Drake, Maria LV Dizon, Sandi K Lam

    This meta-analysis of studies reporting rates of IVH identified 38 studies (87,993 infants) reporting any IVH and 49 studies (328,562 infants) reporting severe IVH. There was substantial variability between studies, largely explained by differences in GA of enrolled infants.

  • MRI-based brain volumes of preterm infants at term: a systematic review and meta-analysis (25 January, 2022)
    Julia Romberg, Marko Wilke, Christoph Allgaier, Thomas Nägele, Corinna Engel, Christian F Poets, Axel Franz

    Reference data for MRI determined brain volumes at term equivalent age in preterm infants

  • Severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia: lessons learnt from a national perinatal audit (28 January, 2022)
    Berthe A M van der Geest, Ageeth N Rosman, Klasien A Bergman, Bert J Smit, Peter H Dijk, Jasper V Been, Christian V Hulzebos

    National audit in Holland shows substandard care factors contribute to severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and chronic bilirubin encephalopathy

  • Associations of body composition with regional brain volumes and white matter microstructure in very preterm infants (20 January, 2022)
    Katherine Ann Bell, Lillian G Matthews, Sara Cherkerzian, Anna K Prohl, Simon K Warfield, Terrie E Inder, Shun Onishi, Mandy B Belfort

    This prospective observational study looks at the associations between body composition and brain development among very preterm infants at term equivalent age.

  • Preliminary study of automated oxygen titration at birth for preterm infants (9 February, 2022)
    Sanoj KM Ali, Rohan V Jayakar, Andrew P Marshall, Timothy J Gale, Peter A Dargaville

    Before-after trial of using automated oxygen control in the delivery room, showing similar results as with manual control (70 vs. 60%) for %time in target, and significantly less time spent in potential hyperoxaemia.

  • Predictors of anastomotic strictures following œsophageal atresia repair (25 February, 2022)
    Madeleine Aumar, Rony Sfeir, Adeline Pierache, Dominique Turck, Frederic Gottrand

    Large study of all babies born with oesophageal atresia in France over an 8 year period with follow up to 1 year. Anastomotic stricture identified in 23% of cases with independent risk factors identified including one (delayed anastomosis) previously unreported.

  • Lung volume distribution in preterm infants on non-invasive high-frequency ventilation (31 January, 2022)
    Vincent D Gaertner, Andreas D Waldmann, Peter G Davis, Dirk Bassler, Laila Springer, Jessica Thomson, David Gerald Tingay, Christoph Martin Rüegger

    Randomized crossover trial comparing electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data between nHFOV with nCPAP, showing increased and more homogenous lung aeration with nHFOV compared to nCPAP

  • Saliva cortisol diurnal variation and stress responses in term and preterm infants (7 March, 2022)
    David Q Stoye, James P Boardman, Clive Osmond, Gemma Sullivan, Gillian Lamb, Gill S Black, Natalie Z M Homer, Nina Nelson, Elvar Theodorsson, Evalotte Mörelius, Rebecca M Reynolds

    Results from salivary cortisol concentrations of infants at 4 months of age suggests that extremely preterm birth disrupts the normative development of the HPA axis in infancy, with patterns of cortisol secretion resembling those seen after childhood adversity.

Short report

PostScript

Images in neonatal medicine