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Neonatal outcome following maternal infection with SARS-CoV-2 in Germany: COVID-19-Related Obstetric and Neonatal Outcome Study (CRONOS)
  1. Nadine Mand1,
  2. Antonella Iannaccone2,
  3. Ann-Carolin Longardt3,
  4. Matthias Hutten4,
  5. Lars Mense5,
  6. Peter Oppelt6,
  7. Rolf Felix Maier1,
  8. Ulrich Pecks7,
  9. Mario Rüdiger5
  10. on behalf of the CRONOS Network
    1. 1 Department of Pediatrics, Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany
    2. 2 Department of Obstetrics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany
    3. 3 Department of Pediatrics, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany
    4. 4 Department of Pediatrics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    5. 5 Department of Pediatrics, University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany
    6. 6 Department of Obstetrics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria
    7. 7 Department of Obstetrics, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany
    1. Correspondence to Dr Nadine Mand, Pediatrics, University of Marburg, Marburg, 35043, Germany; mandn{at}

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    SARS-CoV-2 infections in pregnant women and the consequences for their offspring are summarised in various reviews,1 2 but data on the impact of time of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy on neonatal morbidity are still inconclusive.3 4

    CRONOS (COVID-19-Related Obstetric and Neonatal Outcome Study) is a prospective German registry enrolling pregnant women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during their pregnancy.5 SARS-CoV-2 infection is defined as detection of viral RNA by PCR testing or detection of maternal SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Neonatal infection is defined as detection of viral RNA by PCR testing of a nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal or rectal swab.

    For the present analysis, time of maternal infection was categorised into ‘early’ or ‘late’ if women tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 more or less than 2 weeks prior to delivery, respectively. Data obtained between 3 April and 27 November 2020 were analysed, using 74 hospitals (73 German and 1 Austrian) comprising approximately 20% of German births.

    Within the study period 435 newborns were entered into the registry, 4 …

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    • Collaborators Alexander Hein, Sven Kehl, Julia Kornes, Corinna Keil, Maria Delius, Magdalena Jegen, Babett Ramsauer, Dietmar Schlembach, Bastian Riebe, Michael Abou-Dakn, Ute Schaefer-Graf, Charlotte Engelbrecht, Teresa-Mira Gruber, Lars Hellmeyer, Claudia Laesser, Charlotte Rohlwink, Cosmin Paul Sarac, Mirjam Kunze, Maike Manz, Angela Lihs, Michael Bohlmann, Elsa Hollatz-Galuschki, Janine Zöllkau, Cahit Birdir, Katharina Lang, Christine Morfeld, Constantin Kaisenberg, Marketa Vasku, Lena Anthuber, Gentiana Ibrahimi, Hendrik Veldink, Parnian Parvanta, Anke Reitter, Sara Fill Malfertheiner, Martin Berghaeuser, Verena Haeffner, Monika Palz-Fleige, Tanja Ruebelmann, Nadja Hirschfeld, Marina Sourouni, Christian Enzensberger, Bernhard Bungert, Sven Seeger, Marek Struck, Claudia Roll, Sirma Supcun, Joannis Kyvernitakis, Ines Erhardt, Tamina Rawnaq, Gunnar Schwennicke, Ina Rühl, Carolin Kladt, Anja Leonhardt, Vincent Winkler, Jeannette Teeuwen-Mutter, Frank Reister, Seliger Gregor, Asimina Kartsiouni, Christian Schindlbeck, Tamme Goecke, Katharina Freienstein, Irmgard Drost, Joachim Zucker-Reimann, Stefan Schmidt, Sönke Ebert.

    • Contributors NM designed and conducted the analyses reported in this study and wrote the manuscript. UP contributed significantly to the design of these analyses. A-CL, MH, LM, RFM, UP and MR all contributed significantly to the final draft of this manuscript by discussing the results and their interpretations and by revising earlier drafts. IA and PO provided significant data for the analysis. UP and MR are the principal investigators of the CRONOS Network.

    • Funding The CRONOS Network received funding from CAU/UKSH, DGPM, Krumme-Stiftung Kiel and the German Society of Diabetes.

    • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.