Illicit use of opioids is a global health crisis with major implications for women and children. Strategies for managing opioid use disorder (OUD) in pregnancy have been tested over the past 40 years, but studies have focused on maternal and pregnancy outcomes, with less attention given to long-term follow-up of exposed children. Here, we provide a narrative review of recent advances in the assessment and management of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS), and we summarise evidence from multiple domains—neuroimaging, electrophysiology, visual development and function, neurodevelopment, behaviour, cognition and education—which suggests that prenatal opioid exposure modifies child development. Further studies are required to determine the optimal management of pregnant women with OUD and babies with NOWS. We identify knowledge gaps and suggest that future study designs should evaluate childhood outcomes, including infant brain development and long-term neurocognitive and visual function.
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