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The heart rate of a premature infant had acutely increased during umbilical venous catheterisation. Surface ECG showed a heart rate of 220 beats per minute (bpm). This was interpreted as sinus tachycardia. Transthoracic echocardiography was subsequently performed, demonstrating a moderate patent ductus arteriosus and a small patent oval foramen (PFO), both with left-to-right flow across. In addition, colour-encoded M-mode was used with the line of interrogation crossing the PFO, demonstrating two mechanical atrial events for each ventricular mechanical event …
Contributors KDN wrote the manuscript. MX critically reviewed the manuscript. JTLC wrote the manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Parental/guardian consent obtained.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.