Objective To determine the survival and evolution of pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature born infants beyond 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA).
Design A single-centre retrospective cohort study from a university hospital.
Patients Extremely preterm (gestational age <30 weeks and/or birth weight <1000 g) infants, born between 2012 and 2017, in the University Medical Center Groningen with confirmed PH at/beyond 36 weeks PMA.
Main outcome measures Survival, mortality rate and PH resolution. Patient characteristics, treatment, presence and evolution of PH were collected from patient charts.
Results Twenty-eight infants were included. All had BPD, while 23 (82%) had severe BPD and 11 infants (39%) died. Survival rates at 1, 3 and 7 months from 36 weeks PMA were 89%, 70% and 58%, respectively. In 16 of the 17 surviving infants, PH resolved over time, with a resolution rate at 1 and 2 years corrected age of 47% and 79%, respectively. At 2.5 years corrected age, the resolution rate was 94%.
Conclusions These extremely preterm born infants with PH-BPD had a survival rate of 58% at 6 months corrected age. Suprasystemic pulmonary artery pressure was associated with poor outcome. In the current study, infants surviving beyond the corrected age of 6 months showed excellent survival and resolution of PH in almost all cases. Prospective follow-up studies should investigate whether resolution of PH in these infants can be improved by multi-modal therapies, including respiratory, nutritional and cardiovascular treatments.
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Contributors SA and RMFB conceptualised and designed the study. SA carried out the initial analyses, drafted the initial manuscript, approved the final manuscript as submitted and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work. MH, MTRR, MF, AFB, EMWK and RMFB reviewed and revised the manuscript, approved the final manuscript as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available on reasonable request.
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