Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Pre-emptive opioid sedation during therapeutic hypothermia
  1. Paolo Montaldo1,2,
  2. Anuj Vakharia1,
  3. Phoebe Ivain1,
  4. Josephine Mendoza1,
  5. Vania Oliveira1,
  6. Theodora Markati1,
  7. Seetha Shankaran3,
  8. Sudhin Thayyil1
  1. 1 Department of Paediatrics, Centre for Perinatal Neuroscience, Imperial College London and Imperial Neonatal Service, London, UK
  2. 2 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy
  3. 3 Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Paolo Montaldo, Department of Paediatrics, Centre for Perinatal Neuroscience, Imperial College London and Imperial Neonatal Service, London SW7 2AZ, UK; p.montaldo{at}

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Although none of the major cooling trials mandated routine pre-emptive sedation, anecdotal evidence suggests that opioids are widely used during neonatal cooling therapy. We examined the current practice of pre-emptive opioid sedation during cooling therapy in the UK neonatal units and to compare this with major USA and Canadian neonatal units.

We designed an electronic survey (Qualtrics LLC, Provo, Utah, USA) with 10 questions covering sedation practices during cooling including the drugs used, dose, duration and the reason for sedation for ventilated and non-ventilated babies. The survey was emailed to the lead clinicians of all 52 UK cooling centres directly. In the USA/Canada, the survey was distributed through the Neurocritical Care Special Interest Group, which is a virtual worldwide network of brain researchers. Responses were then screened for duplications and data completeness prior to analysis.

All 52 (100% response rate) UK and 34 of the USA/Canadian cooling centres completed …

View Full Text


  • Contributors All authors have participated in the concept and design; analysis and interpretation of data; and drafting or revising of the manuscript, and they have approved the manuscript as submitted.

  • Funding PM is funded by a Medical Research Council doctoral fellowship, VO is funded by National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) doctoral fellowship. This research was funded by the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre based at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and Imperial College London.

  • Disclaimer The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.