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Diaphragmatic activity during weaning from respiratory support in preterm infants
  1. Juliette V Kraaijenga,
  2. Cornelia G de Waal,
  3. Gerard J Hutten,
  4. Frans H de Jongh,
  5. Anton H van Kaam
  1. Department of Neonatology, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to J V S Kraaijenga, Department of Neonatology (room H3-228), Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, P.O. Box 22660, Amsterdam 1100 DD, The Netherlands; j.v.kraaijenga{at}


Objective To determine if weaning from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) to lesser supportive low flow nasal cannula (LFNC) results in a change in electrical activity of the diaphragm in preterm infants.

Design Prospective observational study.

Setting Neonatal intensive care unit.

Patients Stable preterm infants weaned from nCPAP to LFNC (1 L/min).

Main outcome measures Change in diaphragmatic activity, expressed as amplitude, peak and tonic activity, measured by transcutaneous electromyography (dEMG) from 30 min before (baseline) until 180 min after weaning. Subgroup analysis was performed based on success or failure of the weaning attempt.

Results Fifty-nine preterm infants (gestational age: 29.0±2.4 weeks, birth weight: 1210±443 g) accounting for 74 weaning attempts were included. A significant increase in dEMG amplitude (median, IQR: 21.3%, 3.6–41.4), peak (22.1%, 8.7–40.5) and tonic activity (14.3%, −1.9–38.1) was seen directly after weaning. This effect slowly decreased over time. Infants failing the weaning attempt tended to have a higher diaphragmatic activity than those successfully weaned.

Conclusions Weaning from nCPAP to LFNC leads to an increase in diaphragmatic activity measured by dEMG and is most prominent in preterm infants failing the weaning attempt. dEMG monitoring might be a useful parameter to guide weaning from respiratory support in preterm infants.

  • Neonatology
  • diaphragmatic activity
  • nCPAP
  • low flow nasal cannula
  • Respiratory support

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  • Contributors JVK wrote the first draft of the manuscript. Conception and study design: JVK, GJH, FHdJ, AHvK. Collection, analysis and interpretation of data: JVK, CGdW, GJH, FHdJ, AHvK. Drafting the manuscript for important intellectual content: JVK, CGdW, GJH, FHdJ, AHvK. Decision to submit the paper for publication: JVK, CGdW, GJH, FHdJ, AHvK.

  • Funding This research is supported by the Dutch Technology Foundation STW, which is part of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and partly funded by the Ministry of Economic Affairs (project number 13762).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval The Institutional Review Board of the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.