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Outcomes of infants born at 22–27 weeks' gestation in Victoria according to outborn/inborn birth status
  1. Rosemarie Anne Boland1,2,3,
  2. Peter Graham Davis2,4,
  3. Jennifer Anne Dawson1,2,4,
  4. Lex William Doyle1,2,4
  1. 1Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Melbourne, Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  3. 3Paediatric Infant Perinatal Emergency Retrieval, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  4. 4Department of Newborn Research, Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Rosemarie Anne Boland, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Level 7, Royal Women's Hospital, Locked Bag 300, Parkville, VIC 3052 Australia; rose.boland{at}


Objectives To compare mortality and serious morbidity rates between outborn and inborn livebirths at 22–27 weeks' gestation.

Design Population-based cohort study.

Setting Victoria, Australia.

Patients Livebirths at 22–27 weeks' gestation free of major malformations in 2010–2011.

Interventions Outcome data for outborn (born outside a tertiary perinatal centre) infants compared with inborn (born in a tertiary perinatal centre) infants were analysed by logistic regression, adjusted for gestational age, birth weight and sex.

Main outcome measures Infant mortality and serious morbidity rates to hospital discharge.

Results 541 livebirths free of major malformations were recorded. By 1 year, 49 (58%) outborns and 140 (31%) inborns died (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.78, 95% CI 1.52 to 5.09, p=0.001). In total, 445 infants were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); 93 died by 1 year (14/49 outborns and 79/396 inborns), (aOR 1.75, 95% CI 0.87 to 3.55, p=0.12). There were no significant differences in rates of necrotising enterocolitis, intraventricular haemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or the combined outcome of death or BPD in outborn infants compared with inborn infants. Outborns had an increased risk of cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) compared with inborns (12.2% vs 2.8%, respectively; aOR 5.34, 95% CI 1.84 to 15.54, p=0.002).

Conclusions Mortality rates remained higher for outborn livebirths at 22–27 weeks' gestation compared with inborn peers in 2010–2011. Outborn infants admitted to NICU did not have substantially different rates of mortality or serious morbidity compared with inborns, with the exception of cPVL. Longer-term health consequences of outborn birth before 28 weeks' gestation need to be determined.

  • Mortality
  • Morbidity
  • Extremely preterm
  • Outborn
  • Inborn

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