This paper considers some of the changes in practice that have occurred in the last five years. There have been significant improvements in parental involvement in care. Not all changes have been based on evidence from research: practice has also been affected by changing technology and pressure by industry and other groups.
Among the research-based changes were: an awareness of confidentiality, individualised developmental care, increased use of inhaled nitric oxide, therapeutic hypothermia, less postnatal steroids (although the dosage used is not evidence-based), sucrose as analgesia and permissive hypotension.
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