When asked to address the above question, findings that appeared to be among the most relevant included (1) interventions in the delivery room directed at supporting the physiological transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life rather than actively intervening in it; (2) recent data suggesting that keeping extremely low-gestational age neonates at a pulse oximeter saturation (SpO2) of 91–95% would increase their chances of survival compared with aiming for lower SpO2 values; (3) using caffeine citrate in infants <1250 g with apnoea of prematurity improves neurodevelopmental outcome; (4) injecting antivascular epithelial growth factor into the vitreous seems to be an effective treatment for retinopathy of prematurity and (5) moderate hypothermia for perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy increases the likelihood of survival without neurological impairment. Here, data that support these recent changes in approach will be presented and discussed.
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