Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 97:F35-F38 doi:10.1136/adc.2010.207233
  • Original articles

Echocardiographic assessment of ductal significance: retrospective comparison of two methods

  1. Martin Kluckow3,4
  1. 1Department of Neonatology, Manzoni Hospital, Lecco, Italy
  2. 2Department of Neonatology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  3. 3Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  4. 4Department of Neonatology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Associate Professor Martin Kluckow, Department of Neonatology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Pacific Highway, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW 2065, Australia; mkluckow{at}
  1. Contributors MK conceived the study, MK designed the study, MC collected data, RB analysed data and MC drafted the manuscript. NE supervised performance of the echocardiograms at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and contributed to the manuscript. All authors contributed to revising the manuscript and approved the final version.

  • Accepted 21 March 2011
  • Published Online First 5 May 2011


Background Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants is often assessed with echocardiographic parameters, especially colour Doppler ductal diameter and pulsed Doppler flow pattern. Clinical algorithms have been proposed in which PDA treatment is indicated by either large diameter or a particular flow pattern, however it is unknown whether ductal diameter and flow pattern provide equivalent stratification of infants.

Aim Retrospectively assess both parameters in 197 echocardiograms from 104 infants (gestational age <31 weeks).

Methods Echocardiograms were independently reviewed and the internal colour Doppler diameter of the PDA and the pulsed Doppler flow pattern were characterised for each study (169 records had both parameters recorded).

Results Diameter varied widely within each group but was significantly associated with flow pattern: mean diameter was greatest in the pulmonary hypertension (PH) group (2.6 mm), progressively narrowed across growing and pulsatile groups, and was smallest in the closing group (1.3 mm). When echocardiograms were categorised using previously published diameters, 82.4% of the PH group had diameters >2.0 mm, large diameters predominated in the growing and pulsatile groups but to a progressively smaller extent, and 98.1% of closing group had diameters <2.0 mm.

Conclusion Ductal diameter and flow patterns are significantly associated, consistent with a narrowing of the ductus until closure. Overall, the two parameters are in good agreement but will result in different treatment decisions in some cases. Clinicians might consider using both methods as a cross check against each other, to assist in the management of preterm infants with a clinically detectable PDA.


  • Presented in abstract form at the European Society for Paediatric Research meeting (Nice 2008) and at the American Pediatric Society/Society for Pediatric Research meeting (Baltimore 2009).

  • Funding The North Shore Heart Research Foundation provided funding for this study.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Responses to this article

Latest from Education & Practice

Latest from Education & Practice

Register for free content

Free sample
This recent issue is free to all users to allow everyone the opportunity to see the full scope and typical content of ADC Fetal & Neonatal.
View free sample issue >>

Don't forget to sign up for content alerts so you keep up to date with all the articles as they are published.

Navigate This Article