Although neonatal nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is widely used today, its place in neonatal respiratory support is yet to be fully defined. Current evidence indicates that NIPPV after extubation of very premature infants reduces the rate of reintubation. However, much is still not known about NIPPV including its mechanisms of action. It may improve pulmonary mechanisms, tidal volume and minute ventilation but more studies are required to confirm these findings. There is some evidence that NIPPV marginally improves gas exchange. More research is needed to establish which device is best, what settings to use or whether to use synchronised rather than non-synchronised NIPPV, and about the way to wean NIPPV. Future studies should enrol sufficient infants to detect uncommon serious complications and include long-term follow up to determine important neurodevelopment and pulmonary outcomes.
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Competing interests: None.
- chronic lung disease
- continuous positive airway pressure
- nCPAP, nasal continuous positive airway pressure
- nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation
- positive end expiratory pressure
- positive inspiratory pressure
- synchronised nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation
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