Oesophageal atresia-tracheo-oesophageal fistula has featured in paediatric surgery since its beginnings. The first successful primary repair was in 1941. With overall survival now exceeding 90% in dedicated centres, the emphasis has changed to reducing morbidity and achieving improvements in the quality of life. An overview of current and emerging strategies in managing patients with this condition is presented. Advances in developmental biology and molecular genetics reflecting improved understanding of the pathogenesis are highlighted.
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Competing interests: none declared
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